Native Americans in the United States


    Artists conception of Ohio Hopewell culture Shriver Circle with the Mound City Group to the left

Native Americans, also known as American Indians,
First Americans, Indigenous Americans, and other terms, are the Indigenous
peoples of the  landmass United States(
Indigenous peoples of Hawaii, Alaska and 
homes of the United States are generally known by other terms). There
are 574 federally  honored  lines living within the US, about half of
which are associated with Indian reservations. As defined by the United States
Census,” Native Americans” are Indigenous  lines that are firstly from the  conterminous United States, along with Alaska
Natives. Indigenous peoples of the United States who aren’t listed as American
Indian or Alaska Native include Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and
Chamorros. The US Census groups these peoples as” Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islanders”.   European
colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, redounded in a precipitous
decline in Native American population because of new  conditions, wars, ethnical  sanctification, and  servility. After its  conformation, the United States, as part of
its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and  executed 
butcheries against  numerous
Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and  subordinated them to one- sided  covenants and to  discriminative government  programs, 
latterly  concentrated on forced
assimilation, into the 20th century.Since the 1960s, Native American  tone- determination movements have redounded
in positive changes to the lives of 
numerous Native Americans, 
however there are still  numerous
contemporary issues faced by them. moment, there are over five million Native
Americans in the United States, 78 of whom live outside reservations. The  countries with the loftiest chance of Native
Americans in theU.S. are Alaska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Montana, and North
Dakota.  When the United States was
created, established Native American 
lines were generally consideredsemi-independent nations, as they
generally lived in communities separate from white settlers. The civil government  inked 
covenants at a government- to- government  position until the Indian Appropriations Act
of 1871 ended recognition of independent Native nations, and started treating
them as” domestic dependent nations” subject to applicable civil
laws. This law did  save the rights
and  boons agreed to under the  covenants, including a large degree of  ethnical sovereignty. For this reason,  numerous Native American reservations are
still independent of state law and the 
conduct of  ethnical citizens on these
reservations are subject only to 
ethnical courts and civil law, 
frequently else applicable to 
ethnical lands than toU.S. state or 
home by  impunity, rejection,  convention, or  relieving 
ethnical or civil law.

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 grantedU.S.
citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who hadn’t
yet  attained it. This  voided the” Indians not  tested” 
order established by the United States Constitution, allowed Natives
to  bounce in state and civil  choices, and extended the Fourteenth
Amendment protections granted to people” subject to the  governance” of the United States. still,
some  countries continued to deny Native
Americans advancing rights for several decades. Titles II through VII of the
Civil Rights Act of 1968 comprise the Indian Civil Rights Act, which applies to
the Native American  lines of the United
States and makes  numerous but not all of
the guarantees of theU.S. Bill of Rights applicable within the  lines( that Act appears  moment in Title 25, sections 1301 to 1303 of
the United States Code).

                              Native Americans From southeast Idaho


Beginning towards the end of the 15th century,
the migration of Europeans to the Americas led to centuries of population,
artistic, and agrarian transfer and 
adaptation between Old and New World societies, a process known as the
Columbian exchange. As  utmost Native
American groups had  preliminarily  saved their histories by means of oral
traditions and artwork, the first written accounts of the contact were  handed by Europeans. The Cultural areas
ofpre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber  Ethnographers generally classify the
Indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with
participated artistic traits, called artistic areas. Some scholars combine the
Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate
Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes  lines from the Northeastern woods.

At the time of the first contact, the
Indigenous  societies were  relatively different from those of the
proto-artificial and  substantially
Christian emigrants. Some Northeastern and Southwestern  societies, in particular, were matrilineal
and operated on a  further collaborative
base than that with which Europeans were familiar. The  maturity of Indigenous American  lines treated their stalking grounds and
agrarian lands as being for the use of their entire  lineage. At that time, Europeans had  societies that had developed  generalities of individual property rights
with respect to land that were extremely different. The differences in  societies between the established Native
Americans and indigenous Europeans, as well as the shifting alliances among
different nations during ages of warfare caused 
expansive political pressure, ethnical violence, and social  dislocation.  
Native Americans suffered high casualty rates from contact with
European  conditions that were new to
them, and to which they hadn’t yet acquired 
impunity; the  conditions were
aboriginal to the Spanish and other Europeans, and were spread by direct
contact-  presumably primarily  communicate 
with  tamed  gormandizers that had been brought over by
European  peregrinations and had  also escaped. Smallpox pandemics are allowed  to have caused the  topmost loss of life
forIndigenouspopulations. As WilliamM. The decline of native American
populations was  rapid-fire and
severe,  presumably the  topmost demographic disaster ever. Old
World  conditions were the primary
killer. In  numerous regions,
particularly the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or  further in the first century after the
contact.” Estimates of the size of thepre-Columbian population of the area
that  moment is the United States
vary  vastly. They range from WilliamM.
Dobyns’s 18 million in his 1983 work, Their Number Come weakened.( 15) Because
HenryF. Dobyns ’ is  in far the loftiest
single- point estimate among professional academic experimenters, it has been
blamed as” politically motivated”. Dobyns’ most vehement critic
is  maybe David Henige, a bibliographer
of African literature at the University of Wisconsin, whose figures From
Nowhere( 1998) has been jocularly described as” a  corner in the literature of demographic  scurrility”.Henige writes of Dobyns’
work,” Suspect in 1966, it’s no less 
questionable  currently If
anything, it’s worse.”  After the
thirteen British colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the
United States, President George Washington and Secretary of War Henry Knox
conceived the idea of” citifying” Native Americans in medication for
their assimilation asU.S. citizens. Assimilation( whether it was voluntary, as
it was with the Choctaw, or forced), was 
constantly maintained as a matter of policy by a number of  successive American administrations. During
the 19th century, the  testament known as
manifest  fortune came integral to the
American nationalist movement. Westward expansion of European- American
populations after the American Revolution redounded in  adding 
pressure on Native Americans and their lands, warfare, and rising
pressures. In 1830, theU.S. Congress passed the Indian junking Act, authorizing
the government to  dislocate Native
Americans from their  motherlands within
established  countries to lands west of
the Mississippi River, in order to accommodate 
uninterrupted European- American expansion. This redounded in what
amounted to the ethnical  sanctification
of  numerous  lines and brutal forced marches that came to
be known as the Trail of Gashes.  
Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United
States because they may be members of nations, 
lines, or bands that have sovereignty and  convention rights upon which civil Indian law
and a civil Indian trust relationship are grounded.Cultural activism since the
late 1960s has increased the participation of Indigenous peoples in American
politics. It has also led to expanded 
sweats to educate and  save
Indigenous languages for  youngish
generations, and to establish a more robust artistic  structure Native Americans have  innovated independent  journals and online media outlets, including
First Nations Experience, the first Native American  TV channel; established Native American
studies programs,  ethnical  seminaries universities, galleries and
language programs. Literature is at the growing 
van of American Indian studies in 
numerous  stripes, with the
notable exception of  fabrication — some
traditional American Indians experience fictional narratives as insulting when
they  discord with traditional oral  ethnical narratives.  The terms used to  relate to Native Americans have at times been
controversial. The ways Native Americans 
relate to themselves vary by region and generation, with  numerous aged Native Americans  tone- 
relating as” Indians” or” American Indians”,
while  youngish Native Americans  frequently identify as” Indigenous”
or” Aboriginal”. The term” Native American” has not traditionally
included Native Hawaiians or certain Alaskan Natives,  similar as Aleut,Yup’ik, or Inuit peoples.


    1882 studio portrait of the (then) last surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812

Settlement of the Americas

It isn’t definitively known how or when the
Native Americans first  surfaced from, or
settled, the Americas and the present- day United States. The most popular  proposition proposes that people migrated
from Eurasia across Beringia, a land ground that connected Siberia to present-
day Alaska, and  also spread southward
throughout the Americas over  posterior
generations. The 2021 findings of fossilized 
mortal  vestiges in relict lake
sediments near White Beach National Park in New Mexico suggests  mortal presence dating back to the Last
Glacial Maximum( LGM), between,000 and,000 times agone

 This age
is grounded on a well- constrained stratigraphic record and radiocarbon
courting of seeds in the sediments. Pre-LGM migration across Beringia has also
been proposed to explain purportedpre-LGM 
periods of archaeological  spots
in the Americas  similar as Bluefish grottoes
in the Yukon Territory, and Meadowcroft Rock Shelter in Pennsylvania.   inheritable 
substantiation has suggested at least three  swells of 
settlers arrived from East Asia, with the first  being at least,000 times agone These
migrations may have begun as beforehand as,000 times agoneand continued to
about,000 times agone when the land ground came submerged by the rising  ocean 
position at the onset of the current interglacial period.  In November 2018, scientists of the
University of São Paulo and Harvard University released a study of Luzia Woman,
a,500- time-old  shell of a Paleo- Indian
woman who was  set up in a  delve 
in Brazil. While  originally
believed to be part of the  surge of
Asian  settlers, DNA and other  substantiation has shown this to be  questionable

Pre-Columbian era

period incorporates all period services in the history and prehistory of
the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the
American  mainlands, gauging  the time of the original  agreement in the Upper Paleolithic period to
European colonization during the early 
ultramodern period. While technically 
pertaining to the  period before
Christopher Columbus’ 1492  appearance on
the  mainland, in practice the term  generally includes the history of
Indigenous  societies until they were
conquered or significantly  told  by Europeans, indeed if this  happed decades, or indeed centuries, after
Columbus’  original  wharf.  
Native American  societies
aren’t  typically included in
characterizations of advanced Stone Age 
societies as” Neolithic”, which is a  order that more  frequently includes only the  societies in Eurasia, Africa, and other
regions. The archaeological ages used are the 
groups of archaeological ages and 
societies established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips’ 1958 book
Method and Theory in American Archaeology.

Lithic stage

Multitudinous Paleoindian  societies 
enthralled North America, with some 
disposed around the Great Plains and Great Lakes of the  ultramodern United States and Canada, as well
as areas to the West and Southwest. According to the oral histories of  numerous of the Indigenous peoples, they’ve
been living on this  mainland since
their  birth, described by a wide range
of traditional creation stories. Other 
lines have stories that  relate
migrations across long tracts of land and a great swash believed to be the
Mississippi Swash. inheritable and 
verbal data connect the Indigenous people of this  mainland with ancient northeast Asians.
Archeological and  verbal data has
enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas.   Archeological  substantiation at the Gault  point near Austin, Texas, demonstrates
thatpre-Clovis peoples settled in Texas some,000 –,000 times agone.
substantiation ofpre-Clovis  societies
have also been  set up in the Paisley
grottoes in south-central Oregon and butchered 
leviathan bones in a billabong 
near Tallahassee, Florida. further convincingly but also
controversially, anotherpre-Clovis has been discovered at Monte Verde, Chile.  The Clovis culture, a megafauna stalking
culture, is primarily  linked by the use
of fluted  shaft points. Vestiges from
this culture were first  shoveled  in 1932 near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture
is  linked by the distinctive Clovis
point, a molted flint  shaft- point with
a notched flute, by which it was  fitted  into a shaft. The courting of Clovis
accoutrements  has been by association
with beast bones and by the use of carbon courting  styles. Recent  retrospections of Clovis accoutrements  using advanced carbon- courting  styles produced results of,050 and,800
radiocarbon timesB.P.( roughly 9100 to 8850 BCE).   A Folsom point for a  shaft 
The Folsom tradition was characterized by the use of Folsom points as
gunshot tips and conditioning known from kill 
spots, where bloodbath and butchering of bison took place. Folsom tools
were left behind between 9000 BCE and 8000 BCE. 
Na- Dené- speaking peoples entered North America starting around 8000
BCE, reaching the Pacific Northwest by 5000 BCE, and from there migrating along
the Pacific Coast and into the interior. Linguists, anthropologists, and
archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into
North America,  latterly than the first
Paleo- Indians. They migrated into Alaska and northern Canada, south along the
Pacific Coast, into the innards of Canada, and south to the Great Plains and
the American Southwest. Na- Dené- speaking peoples were the  foremost ancestors of the Athabascan-
speaking peoples, including the present- day and  literal Navajo and Apache. They constructed
largemulti-family  residences in their  townlets, which were used seasonally. People
didn’t live there time- round, but for the summer to quest and fish, and to
gather food  inventories for the

Archaic period

Since the 1990s, archaeologists have explored and
dated eleven Middle Archaic  spots in
present- day Louisiana and Florida at which early  societies 
erected complexes with multiple channel mounds; they were societies of
huntsman- gatherers rather than the settled 
cultivators believed necessary according to the  proposition of Neolithic Revolution to
sustain  similar large  townlets over long ages. The  high 
illustration is Watson Brake in northern Louisiana, whose 11- mound
complex is dated to 3500 BCE, making it the oldest, dated  point in North America for  similar complex construction. It’s nearly,000
times aged than the Poverty Point  point.
Construction of the mounds went on for 500 times until the  point was abandoned about 2800 BCE,  presumably due to changing environmental
conditions.  The Oshara tradition people
lived from around,440 BCE to 460 CE.  
Poverty Point culture is a Late Archaic archaeological culture that
inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and  girding Gulf Coast. The culture thrived from
2200 BCE to 700 BCE, during the Late Archaic period. substantiation of this
culture has been  set up at  further than 100  spots, from the major complex at Poverty
Point, Louisiana( a UNESCO World Heritage Site) across a 100- afar( 160 km)
range to the Jaketown Site near Belzoni, Mississippi.

Post-archaic period

The Formative, Classical, and Postclassic phases
are sometimes grouped together as the Post-Archaean period, which begins around
1000 BC. Chr. Lasts. Sights & Cultures include: Adena, Old Copper,
Oasisamerica, Woodland, Fort Ancient, Hopewell Tradition, and Mississippi

 Native Americans of southeastern Idaho

Woodland period in pre-Columbian North American 
cultures refers to the  period
from about 1000 B.C. to AD 1000  in  eastern 
North America. The Eastern Woodlands cultural region includes what is
now eastern Canada south of the subarctic region of the eastern United States
along  the Gulf of Mexico. The Hopewell
tradition describes the commonalities of a culture that existed from 100 B.C.
to AD 500 during the Woodland period in mid-

.The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture
or society, but a widely scattered collection of related peoples. They were
linked by a common network of trade routes. This period is considered a
development phase without  massive
short-term changes, but as further development of stone and bone tools, leather
processing, textile production, tool manufacture, culture and shelter

Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest belonged to many nations and
tribal affiliations, each with distinct cultural and political identities but
sharing certain beliefs, traditions, and practices, such as: B. the central
importance of the salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol. Your gifting
party, the potlatch, is a very complex event where people come together to
commemorate special events.Such events include the release of a ward or the
appointment or election of a new leader. The culture’s most famous artistic
element is the totem pole, with sculptures of animals and other figures
commemorating cultural beliefs, legends, and significant events.

Mississippi culture was the mound builder that Native American  archaeologists date  to about AD 800-1600, varying by region. It
consisted of a series of urban settlements and satellite villages (suburbs)
linked  by a loose trade network, the
largest city being Cahokia, which was considered an important religious center.
Civilization flourished in what is now the Midwest, Eastern, and Southeastern
United States.[65][66]

pre-Columbian communities were sedentary, such as Pueblo, Mandan, Hidatsa, and
others, and some established large settlements and even cities, such as Cahokia
in present-day Illinois. The  League of
Iroquois, or “People of the Longhouse,” was a politically progressive
and democratic society that some historians believe influenced the United
States Constitution, with the Senate passing a resolution to that effect in
1988. Other historians have questioned this interpretation, believing that the
influence was minimal or non-existent, pointing to the many differences between
the two systems and the numerous constitutional precedents  in European political thought.

European exploration and colonization

After 1492, European exploration and colonization
of the Americas revolutionized the mutual perception of the Old and New Worlds.
Many important early contacts were made in Florida and on the Gulf Coast by
Spanish explorers.

    The Treaty of Penn with the Indians

The Use of the Doctrine of Discovery

During European exploration and colonization of
the Americas,  Europeans adopted the
discovery doctrine, which involves a nation “discovering” a land and
claiming  rights to that land. There are
two important elements of the doctrine that relate directly  to indigenous land claims; these elements are
Christianity and civilization. The doctrine applied to non-Christian peoples
who did not have the same land rights  as
Christians. Since the indigenous peoples were not Christians,

used it as justification for declaring their rights to indigenous land.
Europeans viewed indigenous peoples as “uncivilized savages”; So
civilization was a key aspect of 
Discovery.Europeans believed that God intended them to bring
civilization to the indigenous peoples and their lands.

Impact on native populations

From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the
population of Native Americans  sprucely
declined. utmost mainstream scholars believe that, among the  colorful contributing factors, epidemic  complaint(e.g. smallpox) was the inviting
cause of the population decline of the Native Americans because of their lack
of  impunity to new  conditions brought from Europe. It’s  delicate to estimate the number
ofpre-Columbian Native Americans who were living in what’s  moment the United States of America.
Estimates ranged from a low of,000( Kroeber 1939) to a high of 15 million(
Dobyns 1983), with a reanalysis estimating5.65 million( Thornton 1990). By
1800, the Native population of the present- day United States had declined
to  roughly,000, and only,000 Native
Americans remained in the 1890s.Chicken spell and measles, aboriginal but
infrequently fatal among Europeans( long after being introduced from
Asia),  frequently proved deadly to
Native Americans. In the 100 times following the  appearance of the Spanish to the Americas,
large  complaint pandemics inhabited
large  corridor of the eastern United
States in the 16th century.  There are a
number of  proved cases where  conditions were  designedly spread among Native Americans as a
form of  natural warfare. The most well-
known  illustration  passed in 1763, when Henry Bouquet(  also serving as commander of Fort Pitt)
distributed smallpox  robes to Native
Americans besieging the bastion; the effectiveness of the attempt is unclear.
In 1837, Mandan Native Americans at Fort Clark fell victim to a smallpox
epidemic; some scholars have claimed they were 
designedly infected with smallpox 
robes.  In 1634, Andrew White of
the Society of Jesus established a 
charge in what’s now the state of Maryland, and the purpose of the  charge, stated through an  practitioner to the chief of an Indian  lineage there, was” to extend
civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven”.(
96) White’s  journals report that by
1640, a community had been  innovated which
they namedSt. Mary’s, and the Indians were 
transferring their children there” to be educated among the
English”.This included the son of the Piscataway Indian  principal Tayac, which exemplifies not only
a  academy for Indians, but either a  academy for girls or an earlyco-ed  academy. The same records report that in
1677,” a  academy for humanities was
opened by our Society in the centre of( Maryland), Maryland and the  lately established  academy 
transferred two boys toSt. Omer who yielded in  capacities to many Europeans, when  contending for the honor of being first in
their class. So that not gold, nor 
tableware, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are
gathered from thence to bring those regions, which nonnatives have unjustly
called ferocious, to a advanced state of virtue and  civilization.”  Through themid-17th century the Beaver Wars
were fought over the fur trade between the Iroquois and the Hurons, the
northern Algonquians, and their French abettors . During the war the Iroquois
destroyed several large  ethnical  combinations, including the Huron, Neutral,
Erie, Susquehannock, and Shawnee, and came dominant in the region and enlarged
their  home.   In 1727, the Sisters of the Order of Saint
Ursula  innovated Ursuline Academy in New
Orleans, which is  presently the oldest
continuously operating  academy for girls
and the oldest unqualified  academy in
the United States. From the time of its foundation, it offered the first
classes for Native American girls, and would 
latterly offer classes for 
womanish African- American slaves and free women of color.    1882 plant 
portrayal of the(  also) last
surviving Six Nations  soldiers who
fought with the British in the War of 1812 
Between 1754 and 1763,  numerous
Native American  lines were involved in
the French and Indian War/ Seven Times’ War. Those involved in the fur trade
tended to  league with French forces
against British  social regulars. The
British had made smaller abettors , but it was joined by some  lines that wanted to prove assimilation
and  fidelity in support of  covenants to 
save their  homes. They were  frequently disappointed when  similar 
covenants were  latterly capsized.
The  lines had their own purposes, using
their alliances with the European powers to battle traditional Native
adversaries. Some Iroquois who were 
pious to the British, and helped them fight in the American Revolution,
fled north into Canada.   After European
explorers reached the West Coast in the 1770s, smallpox  fleetly killed at least 30 of Northwest Coast
Native Americans. For the coming eighty to one hundred times, smallpox and
other  conditions devastated native
populations in the region. Puget Sound area populations,  formerly estimated as high as,000 people,
were reduced to only,000 survivors by the time settlers arrived en masse in
themid-19th century.( 100)   Smallpox
pandemics in 1780 – 1782 and 1837 – 1838 brought  desolation and drastic depopulation among the
Plains Indians. By 1832, the civil government established a smallpox
vaccination program for Native Americans( The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832).
It was the first civil program created to address a health problem of Native

Animal introductions

    Navajo man on horseback in Monument ValleyArizona, United States

With the meeting of two worlds,  creatures, insects, and  shops were carried from one to the other,
both  designedly and by chance, in what’s
called the Columbian Exchange. In the 16th century, Spaniards and other
Europeans brought  nags to Mexico. Some
of the  nags escaped and began to breed
and increase their  figures in the wild.
As Native Americans  espoused use of
the  creatures, they began to change
their  societies in substantial ways,
especially by extending their  vagrant
ranges for stalking. The reintroduction of the 
steed to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture
of the Great Plains.

17th century

King Philip’s War

King Philip’s War, also known as Metacom’s War or
Metacom’s Rebellion, was the last major military conflict between the
indigenous peoples of what is now southern New England and English colonists
and their Native American allies from 1675 to 1676. It lasted in northern New
England (primarily on the Maine border) even after the death of King
Philip  until the signing of the Treaty
of Casco Bay in April 1678.

American Revolution

During the American Revolution, the newly
proclaimed United States vied with the British for the allegiance of the Native
American nations east of the Mississippi River. Most of the Native Americans
who joined the fight sided with the British, 
both because of trade ties and the hope that victory over the United
States  would  halt 
further expansion into Native American lands. The first indigenous
people to sign a treaty with the new American government were the Lenape.

 In 1779,
the Sullivan Expedition was led against the British and four allied Iroquois
nations during the American Revolutionary War. George Washington issued orders
making it clear that he intended to eliminate the Iroquois threat:

expedition you will lead is to target the hostile Indian tribes of the Six
Nations, along with their companions and followers.The immediate goal is to
completely destroy and devastate their settlements and  capture 
as many prisoners of all ages and genders as possible. It will be
necessary to destroy their crops  in the
ground now and prevent them from being planted further.

British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), in which
they ceded large areas of Native American territory to the United States
without informing or consulting  Native

United States

The United States sought to expand, develop
agriculture and settlements in new areas, and quench the thirst for land  of settlers 
and new immigrants in New England. The national government initially
attempted to purchase Native American lands through treaties. States and
settlers often opposed these policies.

Hawkins, seen here on his plantation teaching Native Americans at the Creek to
use European technology, painted  1805

American politics in the United States 
continued to develop after the American Revolution. George Washington
and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equal but  their society was inferior.Washington has
formulated a policy of promoting “civilization”; process. Washington had
a six-point plan for civilization that included:

Justice for Native Americans

of Regulated Land

 Encouragement of Trade

 Encouragement of Experimentation in Civilizing
or Bettering Native American Society

of  those who have violated Native
American rights.

 In the
late 18th century, reformers beginning with Washington and Knox advocated the
education of Native Americans, children and adults, with the goal of
“civilizing” or integrating Native Americans into mainstream society.
). The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 furthered this civilizational policy by
providing funds for (mainly religious) corporations working to improve Native

19th century

California’s Native American population declined
by 90% in the 19th century, from over 250,000-200,000 in the early 19th century
to about 15,000 by the end of the century, largely due to disease. Epidemics
swept  California Indian country, such as
the  malaria epidemic of 1833.  The population began to decline when Spanish
authorities forced native Californians to live in missions, where they
succumbed to diseases to which they were poorly immunized. Cook estimates that
15,250 or 45% of the population decline in the missions was due to disease.
[citation needed] Two measles outbreaks, one in 1806 and the other in 1828,
caused many deaths.Mortality rates were so high that the missions  constantly depended on new conversions.
During the California Gold Rush, many Native Americans were killed by incoming
settlers and militia units funded and organized by the California government.
Some scholars argue that the state funding of these militias,which killed up to
400 or more Native Americans, with 
killed in each massacre. , represent a genocidal campaign  against the Native Americans of California.

Westward expansion

As American expansion continued, Native Americans
resisted the settlers. Invaded several regions of the new nation (and
disorganized areas), northwest to southeast, then west as settlers encountered
the  Great Plains Indian tribes. During
the -1812 War, Tecumseh’s forces allied 
with the British. After Tecumseh’s death, the British stopped assisting
the Native Americans south and west of Upper Canada, and American expansion continued
with little opposition. Conflicts in the Southeast include the Creek War and
the Seminole Wars, both before and after the Indians drove out most  of the five civilized tribes.

In the 1830s, President Andrew Jackson signed the
Indian Removal Act of 1830, a policy of relocating Native Americans from their
homelands to Indian Territory and reservations in surrounding areas in order to
open their lands to foreign settlement. This led to Trail of Tears.

 In July
1845,  New York newspaper editor John L.
O’Sullivan coined the phrase “Manifest Destiny” as “Providence’s
design.” Supporting the territorial expansion of the United States.
Manifest Destiny had major impacts on Native Americans such as the continental
expansion of the United States.S. took place at the expense of their occupied
lands. The rationale for Native American policies of conquest and subjugation
stemmed from the stereotypical view of all Native Americans as “ruthless
Native American savages”; (as described in the United States Declaration
of Independence). Sam Wolfson writes in The Guardian, “An excerpt from the
Declaration has often been cited as summarizing the dehumanizing attitudes
towards Native Americans on which USA was based.” The year 1851 set a
precedent for modern Native American reservations by providing funds to relocate
western tribes to reservations as land was no longer available to relocate.

 The Native
American nations of the western Plains continued their military conflicts with
the United States throughout the 19th century through the so-called Indian
Wars. Notable conflicts from this period include the Dakota War, the Great
Sioux War, the Serpent War, the Colorado War, and the Texas and Indian Wars.
Theodore Roosevelt expressed anti-Native American sentiments on the frontier
and believed that Native Americans were doomed to disappear under the pressure
of white civilization, stating in an 1886 lecture:

 I do not
go so far as to believe that the only good Indians, they’re dead Indians, but I
think nine out of ten are, and I don’t want to dwell too much on the tenth.

One of the final and most important events of the
Indian Wars was the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890.  In previous years, the US government  continued to confiscate Lakota lands. A ghost
dance ritual on the northern Lakota Reservation in Wounded Knee, South Dakota
brought the U.Attempt to subdue the Lakota by the S Army. The dance was part of
a religious movement started by Wovoka, a northern Paiute spiritual leader who
preached the return of the Messiah to alleviate the suffering of Native
Americans, promising if they lived righteously and  the spiritual dance listed correctly, the
European settlers would. would disappear, the buffalo would return, and the
living and the dead would reunite in the world of Eden. On December 29,
gunfights broke out at Wounded Knee involving 
and the United StatesThe soldiers killed up to 300 Indians, mostly old
people, women and children.

Civil War

Native Americans served in  the Union and Confederate armies during the
American Civil War. For example, early in the war the minority Cherokee party
swore allegiance to the Confederacy, while 
the majority party was originally pro-Norse. Native Americans fought
knowing that their independence, unique cultures, and ancestral lands could be
threatened if they found themselves on the losing side of the Civil War.  Several Native American tribes such as the
Creek and Choctaw owned slaves and found 
political and economic common ground with the Confederacy

Removals and reservations

In the 19th century, the continued westward
expansion of the United States gradually forced large numbers of Native
Americans to move farther west, often violently, almost always reluctantly.
Because of the 1785 Native Americans and U.S. citizenshipthe Mississippi River
illegal.  for lands west of the river.

 As many as
100,000 Native Americans moved west as a result of this Indian migration
policy. In theory, resettlement was  to
be voluntary, and many Native Americans remained in the East.In practice,  Native American leaders were under intense
pressure to sign eviction treaties. The most glaring violation of the Trail of
Tears was President Jackson’s transfer of the Cherokee  to Indian Territory.  In 1864, 9,000 Navajos were forced by the
United States government into the Bosque Redondo Internment Camp,  where, under armed guard, up to 3,500 Navajo
and Mescalero Apache men, women, and children were suffering from starvation
and disease died next 4 years.In 1868 Navajo internees were allowed to return
to their ancestral homes.

Native Americans and U.S. citizenship

In 1817, the Cherokee became the first Native
Americans to be recognized as American citizens. According to Article 8 of
the  Cherokee Treaty of 1817, “more
than 300 Cherokee (households) have, in sincere simplicity of soul, elected
American citizenship.”

factors establishing citizenship were as follows:

provisions (as for the Cherokee)

registration and allocation under the Dawes Act of February 8, 1887. born.

 Becomes a
soldier and sailor in the United States.S. Armed Forces

to a US Citizen

Act of Congress.

the  Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of
1866 declares that “all persons born in the United States and not subject
to  foreign authority, except untaxed
Native Americans, shall be recognized as citizens of the United States”; .

Indian Appropriations Act of 1871

In 1871, Congress added a knighthood to the
Indian Appropriations Act signed  by
President Ulysses S. Grant, which ended U.S. recognition of additional Native
American tribes or independent nations and prohibited further treaties.

Historical education

schools for Indians, initially run primarily by or associated with Christian
missionaries.  At the time, American
society believed that Native American children should be acculturated into
society. The boarding school experience was full immersion in contemporary American
society, but  could prove traumatic for
children forbidden to speak their native language. They learned Christianity
and were not allowed to practice their original religions, and in many other
ways were forced to abandon their Native American identities. 

 Prior to
1930, reserve schools offered no education beyond the sixth grade.In order to
achieve more, a boarding school was usually required. Small reserves of a few
hundred people usually sent their children to nearby public schools. The
“Indian New Deal” of the 1930s closed many  boarding schools and downplayed goals of
assimilation. The Indian branch of the Civilian Conservation Corps has
undertaken large-scale construction projects on 
reservations, constructing thousands of new schools and community
buildings. Led by John Collier  the
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) has called on progressive teachers to transform
Indian education.By 1938 BIA was teaching 30,000 students in 377 boarding
schools and day schools,  40% of all
Indian children in school. The Navaho were largely opposed to any form of
education, but  other tribes accepted the
system. High schools now existed on the larger reservations, educating not only
young people but  adult listeners as
well. There were no Indian  higher
education institutions. They abandoned textbooks, emphasized their
self-confidence, and began teaching Indian history.They promoted traditional
handicrafts that could be practiced by prior reservation, such as B. jewelry
making. The New Deal reformers met with significant opposition from parents and
teachers, and achieved mixed results. World War II brought young Indians into
contact with  society at large through
military service and work in the defense industry. The role of education was
changed to focus on vocational training for jobs in urban America.

Since the rise of 
Native American self-determination, they have generally made it a point
to educate their children in schools close to where they live. Additionally,
many state-recognized tribes have adopted these schools and added language
preservation and renewal programs  to
strengthen their cultures. Beginning in the 1970s, tribes  also established Native American-controlled
and operated boarding schools on their reservations to train their youth for
work and transmit their cultures.

20th century

Native American to live  utmost of his
life without contact with European- American culture, was discovered near
Oroville, California.  In 1919, the
United States under President Woodrow Wilson granted citizenship to all Native
Americans who had served in World WarI. Nearly,000 men had enlisted and served,
a high number in relation to their population. Despite this, in  numerous areas Native Americans faced
original resistance when they tried to 
bounce and were  discerned against
with  walls to namer enrollment .   On June 2, 1924,U.S. President Republican
Calvin Coolidge  inked the Indian
Citizenship Act, which made all Native Americans born in the United States and
its  homes American citizens. Prior to
passage of the act, nearly two- thirds of Native Americans were  formerlyU.S. citizens, through marriage,
military service or accepting land allotments. The Act extended citizenship
to” allnon-citizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the
United States”. Democratic Charles Curtis, a Solon and longtimeU.S.
Senator from Kansas, was of Kaw, Osage, Potawatomi, and European  strain. After serving as a United States
Representative and being 
constantlyre-elected as United States Senator from Kansas, Curtis served
as Senate Minority Whip for 10 times and as Senate Majority Leader for five
times. He was  veritably influential in
the Senate. In 1928, he ran as the vice presidential  seeker with Herbert Hoover for  chairman, and served from 1929 to 1933. He
was the first person with significant Native American  strain and the first person with  concedednon-European  strain to be 
tagged to either of the loftiest 
services in the land.   American
Indians  moment in the United States have
all the rights guaranteed in theU.S. Constitution, can  bounce in 
choices, and run for political office. difficulties remain over how much
the civil government has  governance
over  ethnical affairs, sovereignty, and
artistic practices.  Mid-century, the
Indian termination policy and the Indian Relocation Act of 1956 marked a new
direction for assimilating Native Americans into civic life.  The 
tale counted,000 Indians in 1930 and,000 in 1940,. Total spending on
Indians equaled $ 38 million a time in the late 1920s, dropping to a low of$ 23
million in 1933, and returning to$ 38 million in 1940.

World War II

Some,000 Native Americans served in theU.S.  service during World War II at the time, one-
third of all  suitable- bodied Indian men
from eighteen to fifty times of age. Described as the first large- scale  outpour of Indigenous peoples from the
reservations since the disposals of the 19th century, the men’s service with
theU.S.  service in the  transnational conflict was a turning point in
Native American history. The inviting 
maturity of Native Americans ate 
the  occasion to serve; they had a
voluntary investiture rate that was 40 advanced than those drafted. Their
fellow dogfaces  frequently held them in
high  regard, in part since the legend of
the tough Native American  legionnaire
had come a part of the fabric of American 
literal legend. White 
soldiers  occasionally showed
a  unconcerned respect toward Native
American comrades by calling them” 
principal”. The performing increase in contact with the world
outside of the reservation system brought profound changes to Native American
culture.” The war”, said theU.S. Indian Commissioner in 1945,”
caused the  topmost  dislocation of Native life since the  morning of the reservation  period”, affecting the habits, views,
and  profitable well- being of  ethnical members. The most significant of
these changes was the  occasion — as a
result of wartime labor  dearths to find
well- paying work in  metropolises,
and  numerous people  dislocated to civic areas, particularly on
the West Coast with the buildup of the defense assiduity.   For case, a aggregate of,200 Pueblo men
served in World War II; only about half came home alive. In addition,  numerous 
further Navajo served as  law  jabberers for the  service in the Pacific. The  law they made, although
cryptographically  veritably simple,
was  noway  cracked by the Japanese.


Military service and civic  occupancy contributed to the rise of American
Indian activism, particularly after the 1960s and the occupation of Alcatraz
Island( 1969 – 1971) by a pupil Indian group from San Francisco. In the same
period, the American Indian Movement( AIM) was 
innovated in Minneapolis, and chapters were established throughout the
country, where American Indians combined spiritual and political activism.
Political  demurrers gained  public media attention and the sympathy of
the American public.   Through
themid-1970s, conflicts between governments and Native Americans  sometimes erupted into violence. Upset
with  ethnical government and the
failures of the civil government to 
apply  convention rights, about
300 Oglala Lakota and AIM activists took control of Wounded Knee on February
27, 1973. Indian activists from around the country joined them at Pine Ridge,
and the occupation came a symbol of rising American Indian identity and power.
Civil law enforcement  officers and
the  public guard cordoned off the  city, and the two sides had a standoff for 71
days. During  important gunfire, one
United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed. In late April, a Cherokee and
original Lakota man were killed by gunfire; the Lakota elders ended the occupation
to  insure no  further people  failed. In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking
to make an fortified  thievery arrest at
Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a attack, and killed at close range. The
AIM activist Leonard Peltier was  doomed
in 1976 to two  successive terms of life
in captivity for the FBI deaths. In 1968, the government  legislated the Indian Civil Rights Act. This
gave  ethnical members  utmost of the protections against abuses
by  ethnical governments that the Bill of
Rights accords to allU.S. citizens with respect to the civil government. In
1975, theU.S. government passed the Indian tone- Determination and Education
backing Act, marking the  capstone of
fifteen times of policy changes. It redounded from American Indian activism,
the Civil Rights Movement, and community development aspects of President
Lyndon Johnson’s social programs of the 1960s. The Act  honored the right and need of Native
Americans for  tone- determination. It
marked theU.S. government’s turn down from the 1950s policy of termination of
the relationship between  lines and the
government. TheU.S. government encouraged Native Americans’  sweats at 
tone- government and determining their futures. lines have developed
associations to administer their own social, 
weal and  casing programs, for
case. ethnical  tone- determination has
created pressure with respect to the civil government’s  major trust obligation to  watch for Indians;  still, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has  noway 
lived up to that responsibility.

Tribal colleges

Navajo Community College, now called Diné
College, the first  ethnical  council, was 
innovated in Tsaile, Arizona, in 1968 and accredited in 1979.
Pressures  incontinently arose between
two  doctrines one that the  ethnical 
sodalities should have the same criteria, class and procedures for
educational quality as mainstream 
sodalities, the other that the faculty and class should be  nearly acclimated to the particular  literal culture of the  lineage. There was a great deal of
development, aggravated by  veritably
tight budgets. In 1994, theU.S. Congress passed legislation feting  the 
ethnical  sodalities as land-  entitlement 
sodalities, which  handed  openings for large- scale backing. Thirty-
two  ethnical  sodalities in the United States belong to the
American Indian Higher Education Consortium. By the early 21st century,  ethnical nations had also established  multitudinous language reanimation programs
in their  seminaries.   In addition, Native American activism has
led major universities across the country to establish Native American studies
programs and departments,  adding   mindfulness of the strengths of Indian  societies, 
furnishing  openings for
academics, and  heightening  exploration on history and  societies in the United States. Native
Americans have entered academia; journalism and media; politics at original,
state and civil  situations; and public
service, for case,  impacting medical  exploration and policy to identify issues
related to American Indians.

21st century

In 2009, an” 
reason to Native Peoples of the United States” was included in the
Defense Appropriations Act. It stated that theU.S.” apologizes on behalf
of the people of the United States to all Native Peoples for the  numerous cases of violence, maltreatment, and
neglect foisted on Native Peoples by citizens of the United States”. In
2013,  governance over persons who
weren’t  ethnical members under the
Violence Against Women Act was extended to Indian Country. This closed a gap
which averted arrest or  execution
by  ethnical police or courts of  vituperative 
mates of  ethnical members who
weren’t native or from another  lineage.
Migration to civic areas continued to grow with 70 of Native Americans living
in civic areas in 2012, over from 45 in 1970 and 8 in 1940. Civic areas with
significant Native American populations include Phoenix, Tulsa, Minneapolis,
Denver, Albuquerque, Tucson, Chicago, Oklahoma City, Houston, New York City,
Los Angeles, and Rapid City. numerous live in poverty. Racism, severance,  medicines, and gangs were common problems
that Indian social service associations 
similar as the Little Earth 
casing complex in Minneapolis attempt to address. Grassroots  sweats to support civic Indigenous
populations have also taken place, as in the case of Bringing the Circle
Together in Los Angeles.   In 2020,
Congress passed a law to transition the 
operation of a bison range on over,000 acres of uninhabited land in
northwest Montana from theU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Confederated
Salish and Kootenai lines. In the 1900s these lands were taken by theU.S.
government and the bison were depleted without the  concurrence of the Confederated Salish and
Kootenai lines. Secretary Interior Deb Haaland celebrated this transition at
the Salish Kootenai College on May 21, 2022, calling it” a return to  commodity pure and sacred.”

Population distribution

78 of Native Americans live outside a
reservation. Full- blood  individualities
are more likely to live on a reservation than mixed- blood  individualities. The Navajo, with,000 full-
blood  individualities, is the
largest  lineage if only full- blood  individualities are counted; the Navajo are
the  lineage with the loftiest proportion
of full- blood  individualities,86.3. The
Cherokee have a different history; it’s the largest  lineage, with,000  individualities, and it has,000 full-
blood  individualities.

Urban migration

As of 2012, 70 of Native Americans live in civic
areas, over from 45 in 1970 and 8 in 1940. Civic areas with significant Native
American populations include Minneapolis, Denver, Phoenix, Tucson, Chicago,
Oklahoma City, Houston, New York City, and Los Angeles. numerous live in
poverty. Racism, severance,  medicines
and gangs are common problems which Indian social service associations  similar as the Little Earth  casing complex in Minneapolis attempt to




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