American poetry

It arose first as  sweats by American  pioneers to add their voices to English poetry in the 17th century, well before the  indigenous  junction of the Thirteen Colonies( although a strong oral tradition  frequently likened to poetry  formerly  was among Native American societies).( 1) utmost of the early  pioneers’ work was  analogous to contemporary English models of  lyrical form, diction, and theme. still, in the 19th century, an American expression began to  crop . By the after part of that century,  muses like Walt Whitman were winning an enthusiastic  followership abroad and had joined the English- language avant- garde.   important of the American poetry published between 1910 and 1945 remains lost in the  runners of small rotation political  diurnals, particularly the bones  on the far left, destroyed by librarians during the 1950s McCarthy  period.( 2) Modern  muses like Ezra Pound andT.S. Eliot( who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948) are  frequently cited as creative and influential English- language  muses of the first half of the 20th century.( 3) African American and women  muses were published and read extensively in the same period but were  frequently  kindly   prejudicially marginalized. By the 1960’s, the Beat Movement and Black Mountain  muses had developed new models for poetry and their coevals  told  the British Poetry Revival. Towards the end of the renaissance, consideration of American poetry had diversified, as scholars placed an increased emphasis on poetry by women, African Americans, Hispanics, Chicanos, Native Americans, and other ethnical groups. Louise Glück is the only contemporary American  pen writing primarily poetry who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, while Bob Dylan, a folk-  gemstone  tunesmith and  minstrel, has been awarded the same prize.

Poetry in the colonies

Thomas Morton of Merrymount – a Devon- born West Country outdoorsman, attorney at law, man of letters and  social adventurer – raised a maypole to celebrate and foster success at his fur- trading  agreement and nailed a” Poem” and” Song”( one a densely  erudite fiat on how European and Native people came together there and must keep doing so for a successful America; the other a light” drinking song” also full of deeper American counteraccusations ). These were published in book form along with other  exemplifications of Morton’s American poetry in” New English Canaan”( 1637); and grounded on the criteria of” First,”” American” and” Poetry,” they make Morton( and not Anne Bradstreet) America’s first  minstrel in English.( 5)    Phillis Wheatley, a slave, wrote poetry during the  social period.  One of the first recorded  muses of the Thirteen Colonies was Anne Bradstreet( 1612 – 1672), who remains one of the early known women  muses who wrote in English.( 6) The  runes she published during her continuance address religious and political themes. She also wrote tender evocations of home, family life and of her love for her hubby,  numerous of which remained unpublished until the 20th century.   Edward Taylor( 1645 – 1729) wrote  runes expounding Puritan  merits in a  largely wrought metaphysical style that can be seen as typical of the early  social period.( 7)   This narrow focus on the Puritan heritage was, understandably, the dominant note of  utmost of the poetry written in the colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The  foremost”  temporal” poetry published in New England was by Samuel Danforth in his” almanacks” for 1647 – 1649,( 8) published at Cambridge; these included”  mystification  runes” as well as  runes on caterpillars,  suckers, earthquakes, and hurricanes. Of course, being a Puritan minister as well as a  minstrel, Danforth  noway  ventured far from a spiritual communication.   A distinctly American lyric voice of the  social period was Phillis Wheatley, a slave whose book” runes on colorful Subjects, Religious and Moral,” was published in 1773. She was one of the best- known  muses of her day, at least in the colonies, and her  runes were typical of New England culture at the time,  planning on religious and classical ideas.( 9)( 10)   The 18th century saw an  adding  emphasis on America as fit subject matter for its  muses. This trend is most apparent in the  workshop of Philip Freneau( 1752 – 1832), who’s notable for the surprisingly sympathetic  station to Native Americans shown in his jottings, which had been interpreted as being reflective of his  dubitation   toward American culture.( 11) still, as might be anticipated from what was basically  parochial jotting, this late  colonizer-  period poetry is generally  kindly  old- fashioned in form and syntax, planting the means and  styles of Pope and Gray in the  period of Blake and Burns. The work of Rebecca Hammond Lard( 1772 – 1855), although  relatively old, still apply to life in  moment’s world. She writes about nature, not only the nature of  terrain, but the nature of humans.( 12)   On the whole, the development of poetry in the American colonies glasses the development of the colonies themselves. The early poetry is dominated by the need to  save the integrity of the Puritan ideals that created the  agreement in the first place. As the  pioneers grew in confidence, the poetry they wrote decreasingly reflected their drive towards independence. This shift in subject matter wasn’t reflected in the mode of jotting which tended to be conservative, to say the least. This can be seen as a product of the physical  spread at which American  muses operated from the center of English- language  lyrical developments in London.

                         Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1873

Postcolonial poetry

The first significant  minstrel of the independent United States was William Cullen Bryant( 1794 – 1878), whose great  donation was to write  rapturous  runes on the  majesty of  downs and  timbers. still, the first internationally accredited  minstrel was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow( 1807 – 1882) who nearly surpassed Alfred, Lord Tennyson in  transnational fashionability, and, alongside William Cullen Bryant, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes,Sr.,( 13) formed the Fireside muses( known as the Schoolroom or Household muses).( 14) The Fireside muses were a group of 19th- century American  muses from New England. The name” Fireside muses” is  deduced from that fashionability their general adherence to  lyrical convention( standard forms, regular  cadence, and  squared stanzas) made their body of work particularly suitable for being  learned and recited in  academy and at home, where it was a source of entertainment for families gathered around the fire. The  muses’ primary subjects were the domestic life,  tradition, and politics of the United States, in which several of the  muses were directly involved.( citation  demanded)   Other notable  muses to  crop  in the early and middle 19th century include Ralph Waldo Emerson( 1803 – 1882), Edgar Allan Poe( 1809 – 1849), Henry David Thoreau( 1817 – 1862), Sidney Lanier( 1842 – 1881), and James Whitcomb Riley( 1849 – 1916). As might be anticipated, the  workshop of all these  pens are united by a common hunt for a distinctive American voice to distinguish them from their British counterparts. To this end, they explored the  geography and traditions of their native country as accoutrements  for their poetry.( 15)   The most significant  illustration of this tendency may be The Song of Hiawatha by Longfellow. This lyric uses Native American tales collected by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who was  supervisor of Indian affairs for Michigan from 1836 to 1841. Longfellow imitated the  cadence of the Finnish  grand lyric Kalevala, conceivably to avoid British models. The performing lyric, while a popular success, didn’t  give a model for  unbornU.S.  muses.   As time went on, the influence of the transcendentalism of the  minstrel/ proponents Emerson and Thoreau decreasingly  told  American poetry. Emerson, arguably one of the authors of transcendentalism, had visited England as a  youthful man to meet these two English  muses, as well as Thomas Carlyle. While Romanticism transitioned into Victorianism inpost-reform England, it came energetic in America from the 1830s through to the Civil War.   Edgar Allan Poe was a unique  minstrel during this time,  incubating over themes of the  lurid and dark, connecting his poetry and aesthetic vision to his philosophical, cerebral, moral, and cosmological  propositions.( 16) Different authors in France, Sweden and Russia were heavily  told  by his  workshop. The  minstrel Charles Baudelaire was particularly obsessed with Poe, and drew upon the American  minstrel to  construct Symbolism in French poetry. Also, Poe’s lyric” The Raven” swept across Europe and was  restated into  numerous languages. He declined in fashionability as a  minstrel,  still, and alienated himself from his coevals by intimately  criminating Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of plagiarism — although Longfellow  noway  responded.( citation  demanded) In the 20th century, American  minstrel William Carlos Williams said of Poe that” in him American literature is anchored, in him alone, on solid ground.”

Whitman and Dickinson

The final emergence of a truly indigenous English- language poetry in the United States was the work of two  muses, Walt Whitman( 1819 – 1892) and Emily Dickinson( 1830 – 1886). On the  face, these two  muses couldn’t have been less  suchlike. Whitman’s long lines,  deduced from the  standard of the King James Version of the Bible, and his popular inclusiveness stand in stark  discrepancy with Dickinson’s concentrated expressions and short lines and stanzas,  deduced from Protestant hymnaries.   Walt Whitman   Emily Dickinson  What links them is their common connection to Emerson( a passage from whom Whitman  published on the alternate edition of Leaves of Grass), and the daring originality of their  fancies. These two  muses can be said to represent the birth of two major American  lyrical expressions — the free  standard and direct emotional expression of Whitman, and the gnomic obscurity and irony of Dickinson — both of which would profoundly stamp the American poetry of the 20th century.( 18)   The development of these expressions, as well as conservative  responses against them, can be traced through the  workshop of  muses  similar as Edwin Arlington Robinson( 1869 – 1935), Stephen Crane( 1871 – 1900), Robert Frost( 1874 – 1963), Carl Sandburg( 1878 – 1967), and EdnaSt. Vincent Millay( 1892- 1950). Frost, in particular, is a commanding figure, who aligned strict  lyrical  cadence, particularly blank verse and  curt lyrical forms, with a” vurryAmur’k’n”( as Pound put it) expression. He successfully revitalized a  pastoral tradition with  numerous English antecedents from his cherished Golden Treasury and produced an corpus of major  significance,  competing or indeed  outstripping in achievement that of the  crucial  ultramodernists and making him, within the full  reach of traditional  ultramodern English- language verse, a peer of Hardy and Yeats. But from Whitman and Dickinson the outlines of a distinctively new organic  lyrical tradition, less  obliged to English formalism than Frost’s work, were clear to see, and they would come to full  consummation in the 1910s and 1920s. As Colin Falck noted,” To the Whitmanian heritage of cadenced free verse she( Millay) brings the lesser reflective  miserliness of Robinson Jeffers.”

                  Emily Dickinson

Modernism and after

entury English- language  lyrical euphemism. Ezra Pound( 1885 – 1972) andT.S. Eliot( 1888 – 1965) were the leading  numbers at the time, with their rejection of traditional  lyrical form and  cadence and of puritanical diction. Both steered American poetry toward lesser  viscosity, difficulty, and  nebulosity, with an emphasis on  ways  similar as fragmentation, ellipsis, allusion, immediacy, ironic and shifting personae, and  legendary  community. Pound, in particular, opened up American poetry to different influences, including the traditional minstrelsies of China and Japan.    Eliot  multitudinous other  muses made important  benefactions at this revolutionary juncture, including Gertrude Stein( 1874 – 1946), Wallace Stevens( 1879 – 1955), William Carlos Williams( 1883 – 1963), Hilda Doolittle(H.D.)( 1886 – 1961), Marianne Moore( 1887 – 1972),E.E. Cummings( 1894 – 1962), and Hart Crane( 1899 – 1932). The cerebral and skeptical Romantic Stevens helped revive the philosophical lyric, and Williams was to come exemplary for  numerous after  muses because he,  further than any of his peers,  simulated to marry spoken American English with free verse  measures. Cummings remains notable for his  trials with typography and evocation of a  robotic, childlike vision of reality.   Whereas these  muses were unambiguously aligned with high euphemism, other  muses active in the United States in the first third of the 20th century were not. Among the more important of the  ultimate were those who were associated with what came to be known as the New review. These included John Crowe Ransom( 1888 – 1974), Allen Tate( 1899 – 1979), and Robert Penn Warren( 1905 – 1989). Other  muses of the  period,  similar as Archibald MacLeish( 1892 – 1982), experimented with modern  ways but were drawn toward traditional modes of jotting. Still others,  similar as Robinson Jeffers( 1887 – 1962),  espoused Modernist freedom while remaining  frosty from Modernist  coalitions and programs.   In addition, there were still other, early 20th- century  muses who maintained or were forced to maintain a  supplemental relationship to high euphemism,  probably due to the racially charged themes of their work. They include Countee Cullen( 1903 – 1946), Alice Dunbar Nelson( 1875 – 1935), Gwendolyn Bennett( 1902 – 1981), Langston Hughes( 1902 – 1967), Claude McKay( 1889 – 1948), Jean Toomer( 1894 – 1967), and other African American  muses of the Harlem Renaissance.   The modernist arsonist was carried in the 1930s  substantially by the group of  muses known as the Objectivists. These included Louis Zukofsky( 1904 – 1978), Charles Reznikoff( 1894 – 1976), George Oppen( 1908 – 1984), Carl Rakosi( 1903 – 2004) and,  latterly, Lorine Niedecker( 1903 – 1970). Kenneth Rexroth, who was published in the Objectivist Anthology, was, along with Madeline Gleason( 1909 – 1973), a forerunner of the San Francisco Renaissance. numerous of the Objectivists came from civic communities of new emigrants, and this new  tone of experience and language  amended the growing American expression.

World War II and after

Archibald Macleish called John Gillespie Magee,Jr.” the first  minstrel of the war”.( 20)   World War II saw the emergence of a new generation of  muses,  numerous of whom were  told  by Wallace Stevens and Richard Eberhart( 1904 – 2005). Karl Shapiro( 1913 – 2000), Randall Jarrell( 1914 – 1965) and James Dickey( 1923 – 1997) all wrote poetry that sprang from experience of active service. Together with Elizabeth Bishop( 1911 – 1979), Theodor Seuss Geisel(Dr. Seuss)( 1904- 1991), Theodore Roethke( 1908 – 1963) and Delmore Schwartz( 1913 – 1966), they formed a generation of  muses that in  discrepancy to the  antedating generation  frequently wrote in traditional verse forms.   After the war, a number of new  muses and  lyrical movements  surfaced. John Berryman( 1914 – 1972) and Robert Lowell( 1917 – 1977) were the leading lights in what was to come known as the Confessional movement, which was to have a strong influence on after  muses like Sylvia Plath( 1932 – 1963) and Anne Sexton( 1928 – 1974). Though both Berryman and Lowell were  nearly acquainted with Modernism, they were  substantially interested in exploring their own  gests  as subject matter and a style that Lowell appertained to as” cooked” – that is,  purposely and precisely  drafted.

    


Denise Levertov


In  discrepancy, the Beat  muses, who included  similar  numbers as Jack Kerouac( 1922 – 1969), Allen Ginsberg( 1926 – 1997), Gregory Corso( 1930 – 2001), Joanne Kyger( 1934- 2017),.  Around the same time, the Black Mountain  muses, under the leadership of Charles Olson( 1910 – 1970), were working at Black Mountain College in North Carolina.  The main  muses involved were Robert Creeley( 1926 – 2005), Robert Duncan( 1919 – 1988), Denise Levertov( 1923 – 1997), Ed Dorn( 1929 – 1999), Paul Blackburn( 1926 – 1971), Hilda Morley( 1916 – 1998), John Wieners( 1934 – 2002), and Larry Eigner( 1927 – 1996). They grounded their approach to poetry on Olson’s 1950 essay Projective Verse, in which he called for a form grounded on the line, a line grounded on  mortal breath and a mode of writing grounded on  comprehensions juxtaposed so that one perception leads directly to another. This in turn  told  the  workshop of Michael McClure( 1932- 2020), Kenneth Irby( 1936 – 2015), and Ronald Johnson( 1935 – 1998),  muses from the Midwestern United States who moved to San Francisco, and in so doing extended the influence of the Black Mountain  academy geographically westward; their participation in the  lyrical circles of San Francisco can be seen as  incompletely forming the base for what would  latterly be known as” Language poetry.”( 21)( 22)   Other  muses  frequently associated with the Black Mountain are Cid Corman( 1924 – 2004) and Theodore Enslin( 1925- 2011), but they’re  maybe  rightly viewed as direct descendants of the Objectivists. One- time Black Mountain College  occupant,  musician John Cage( 1912 – 1992), along with Jackson Mac Low( 1922 – 2004), wrote poetry grounded on chance or aleatory  ways. Inspired by Zen, Dada and scientific  propositions of indeterminacy, they were to prove to be important influences on the 1970sU.S avant- garde.   The Beats and some of the Black Mountain  muses  frequently are considered to have been responsible for the San Francisco Renaissance. still, as  preliminarily noted, San Francisco had come a  mecca of experimental  exertion from the 1930s thanks to Kenneth Rexroth and Gleason. Other  muses involved in this scene included Charles Bukowski( 1920 – 1994) and Jack Spicer( 1925 – 1965). These  muses sought to combine a contemporary spoken expression with inventive formal  trial.     Deep Image poetry was inspired by the symbolist  proposition of correspondences, in particular the work of Spanish  minstrel Federico García Lorca. The term  latterly was vulgarized by Robert Bly. The Deep Image movement was the most  transnational, accompanied by a  flood tide of new  restatements from Latin American and European  muses  similar as Pablo Neruda, César Vallejo and Tomas Tranströmer. Some of the  muses who came associated with Deep Image are Galway Kinnell, James Wright, Mark beachfront andW.S. Merwin. Both Merwin and California  minstrel Gary Snyder came known for their interest in environmental and ecological  enterprises.   The Small Press  muses(  occasionally called the mimeograph movement) are another influential and  miscellaneous group of  muses who surfaced in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1950s and are still active  moment.( citation  demanded) Fiercely independent editors, who were also  muses, edited and published low- budget  diurnals and casebooks of arising  muses who might  else have gone unnoticed. This work ranged from formal to experimental. Gene Fowler, bulletin Winans, Hugh Fox,  road  minstrel and activist Jack Hirschman, Paul Foreman, Jim Cohn, John Bennett, andF.A. Nettelbeck are among the  numerous  muses who are still  laboriously continuing the Small Press muses tradition.( citation  demanded) numerous have turned to the new medium of the Web for its distribution capabilities.   Los Angeles  muses Leland Hickman( 1934 – 1991), Holly Prado( 1938- 2019), Harry Northup( born 1940), Wanda Coleman( 1946- 2013), MichaelC. Ford( born 1939), Kate Braverman( 1949- 2019), Eloise Klein Healy( born 1943), Bill Mohr, Laurel Ann Bogen, met at Beyond Baroque Literary trades Center, in Venice, California. They’re lyric  muses, heavily autobiographical; some are  interpreters of the experimental long lyric. Their  forerunners in Los Angeles were Ann Stanford( 1916 – 1987), Thomas McGrath( 1916 – 1990), Jack Hirschman( 1933- 2021). Beyond Baroque Literary trades Center, created by George Drury Smith in 1968, is the central  erudite  trades center in the Los Angeles area.   This group aimed to write poetry that spoke directly of everyday experience in everyday language and produced a poetry of  smooth wit and  fineness that contrasts with the work of their Beat coevals(  however in other ways, including their  collective respect for American  shoptalk and  misprision for academic or” cooked” poetry, they were  analogous). Leading members of the group include John Ashbery( 1927- 2017), FrankO’Hara( 1926 – 1966), Kenneth Koch( 1925 – 2002), James Schuyler( 1923 – 1991), Barbara Guest( 1920 – 2006), Ted Berrigan( 1934 – 1983), Anne Waldman( born 1945) and Bernadette Mayer( born 1945). Of this group, John Ashbery, in particular, has  surfaced as a defining force in recent poetics, and he’s regarded by  numerous as the most important American  minstrel since World War II.

American poetry today

The last 40 times of poetry in the United States have brought new groups,  seminaries, and trends into vogue. The 1970s saw a reanimation of interest in surrealism, with the more prominent  muses working in this field being Andrei Codrescu( born in 1946), Russell Edson( 1935- 2014) and Maxine Chernoff( born in 1952). Performance poetry  surfaced from the Beat and hippie happenings, the talk-  runes of David Antin( 1932- 2016), and ritual events performed by Rothenberg, to come a serious  lyrical  station which embraces multiculturalism and a range of  muses from a  multifariousness of  societies. This imaged a general growth of interest in poetry by African Americans including Gwendolyn Brooks( 1917 – 2000), Maya Angelou( 1928 – 2014), Ishmael Reed( born in 1938),   Another group of  muses, the Language  academy( or L =  A =  N =  G =  U =  A =  G =  E, after the magazine that bears that name) Their  runes —  partial, purposefully illiterate,  occasionally mixing  textbooks from different sources and expressions — can be by turns abstract, lyrical, and  largely  ridiculous.   The Language  academy includes a high proportion of women, which glasses another general trend — the detection and  creation of poetry written both by earlier and contemporary women  muses. A number of the more prominent African American  muses to  crop  are women, and other prominent women  pens include Adrienne Rich( 1929 – 2012), Jean Valentine( 1934 – 2020), and Amy Gerstler( born in 1956).   Although poetry in traditional classical forms had  substantially fallen out of fashion by the 1960s, the practice was kept alive by  muses of great formal literacy like James Merrill( 1926 – 1995), author of the  grand lyric The Changing Light at Sandover, Richard Wilbur, and British- born San Francisco  minstrel Thom Gunn. The 1980s and 1990s saw are-emergent interest in traditional form,  occasionally dubbed New Formalism or Neoformalism. These include  muses  similar as Molly Peacock, Brad Leithauser, Dana Gioia, DonnaJ.  Some of the  further  open New Formalists have declared that the return to minstrelsy and  further fixed  measures to be the new avant- garde. Their critics  occasionally associate this conservatism with the conservative politics of the Reagan  period, noting the recent appointment of Gioia as  president of the National Endowment for the trades.   Haiku has attracted a community of American  muses  devoted to its development as a  lyrical  kidney in English. The extremely  concise Japanese haiku first  told  the work of Ezra Pound and the Imagists, andpost-war  muses  similar as Kerouac and Richard Wright wrote substantial bodies of original haiku in English. Other  muses  similar as Ginsberg, Snyder, Wilbur, Merwin, and  numerous others have at least dabbled with haiku,  frequently simply as a syllabic form. Starting in 1963, with the founding of the journal American Haiku,  muses  similar as Cor van den Heuvel, Nick Virgilio, Raymond Roseliep, John Wills, Anita Virgil, Gary Hotham, Marlene Mountain, Wally Swist, Peggy Willis Lyles, George Swede, Michael Dylan Welch, Jim Kacian, and others have created significant corpora of haiku poetry,  communicating  durations with both Transcendentalism and Imagism and  frequently maintaining ananti-anthropocentric environmental focus on nature during an  unequaled  age of  niche destruction and  mortal disaffection.
The last two decades have seen a reanimation of the Beat poetry spoken word tradition, in the form of the poetry slam. Chicago construction worker Marc Smith turned civic poetry performance into  followership- judged competitions in 1984.( 23) Poetry slams emphasize a style of writing that’s topical,  instigative and  fluently understood. Poetry slam opened the door for a generation of  pens and spoken word players, including Alix Olson, Apollo Poetry, Taylor Mali, and Saul Williams, and inspired hundreds of open mics across theU.S.   Poetry has come a significant presence on the Web, with a number of new online journals,’ zines, blogs and other websites. An  illustration of the fluid nature of web- grounded poetry communities is,” thisisbyus, now defunct, yet this community of  pens continues and expands on Facebook and has allowed both  neophyte and professional  muses to explore writing styles.   During the contemporary time frame, there were major independent voices who defied links to well- known American  lyrical movements and forms  similar as  minstrel and  erudite critic Robert Peters, greatly  told  by the puritanical English  minstrel Robert Browning’s  lyrical harangues, came  estimable for executing his monologic personae like his frenetic King Ludwig II of Bavaria into popular one- man performances.( 24) Another  illustration is Louise Glück who cites Emily Dickinson and William Blake as her influences. Critics and scholars have  bandied whether or not she’s a confessional  minstrel. Sylvia Plath may be another of her influences.   The Library of Congress produces a  companion to American poetry inspired by the9/11 attacks, including  compilations and books  devoted to the subject.( 25)( 26)   Robert Pinsky has a special place in American poetry as he was the  minstrel laureate of the United States for three terms.( 27) No other  minstrel has been so honored. His” Favorite Poem Project” is unique, inviting all citizens to partake their  each- time favorite  lyrical composition and why they love it. He’s a professor at Boston University and the poetry editor at Slate.” runes to Read”( 28) is a demonstration of his  lyrical vision, joining the word and the common man.   With increased  knowledge of society’s impact on natural ecosystems, it’s inexorable that  similar themes would come integrated into poetry. The foundations of  runes about nature are  set up in the work of Henry David Thoreau and Walt Whitman. The  ultramodern ecopoetics movement was  innovated by Jack Collom, who  tutored a  devoted course on ecopoetics at Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado for 17 times.( citation  demanded) Contemporary poetry on environmental sustainability is  set up among the  workshop ofJ.S. Shipman, for  illustration, in,” Calling on You.”( 29)   The growth in the fashionability of graduate creative jotting programs has given  muses the  occasion to make a living as  preceptors. This increased professionalization of poetry, combined with the disinclination of  utmost major book and magazine presses to publish poetry, has meant that, for the foreseeable future at least, poetry may have  set up its new home in the academe and in small independent journals. A prominent  illustration is Nobel Laureate Louise Glück who teaches at Yale University.











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