Neom

 

Neom( 
nominated NEOM; Arabic
نيوم, romanized niyūm, Hejazi
pronunciation( nɪˈjo
̞ːm)) is a planned
smart  megacity in Tabuk Province in
northwestern Saudi Arabia. The  point is
north of the Red Sea, east of Egypt across the Gulf of Aqaba, and south of
Jordan. The total area of Neom is,500 km2(,200 sq mi) or 33 times the size of
New York City. The  megacity’s plans
include multiple regions, including a floating artificial complex, global
trade  mecca,  sightseer resorts, and a direct  megacity all powered  simply by renewable energy sources.  inventors intend for the  maturity of the  megacity to be complete by 2030.Experts have
expressed  dubitation  about the 
intentions of the megaproject Saudi Arabia firstly aimed to complete
major  corridor of the  design by 2020, with an expansion completed
in 2025, but  also fell behind schedule.
By July 2022, only two  structures had
been constructed, and  utmost of the  design area remained bare desert. The  design’s estimated cost is over$ 500 billion.
On January 29, 2019, Saudi Arabia 
blazoned that it had set up a unrestricted joint- stock company named
Neom. The company is wholly  possessed by
the Public Investment Fund, and is solely 
devoted to developing the 
profitable zone of Neom.  The  design has been the subject of several  mortal rights 
difficulties, involving the eviction of the original population, an  vituperative work culture, and the use of
surveillance technologies.

History

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman  blazoned the plans for the  megacity at the Future Investment Initiative
conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on October 24, 2017. He said it would
operate  singly from the “ being
governmental  frame ” with its own  duty and labour laws and an”  independent judicial system.” Egypt  blazoned in 2018 that it would contribute
some land to the Neom  design. Klaus
Kleinfeld was  blazoned as the  initial director for the Neom  design upon its launch by Muhammed bin
Salman. In 2018, Kleinfeld  inked
Gladstone Place mates LLC for” Dispatches Services” for the Neom  design, for a 
figure of$,500 plus charges of$,000. On July 3, 2018 Kleinfeld was  blazoned as the new  counsel to Muhammed bin Salman from 1 August
2018 onwards. Nadhmi Al- Nasr succeeded him as the new Director of Neom from 1
August 2018. The action to  produce the  megacity of Neom  surfaced from Saudi Vision 2030, a plan to
reduce Saudi Arabia’s dependence on  oil
painting, diversify its frugality, and develop public service sectors. Plans
call for robots to perform functions 
similar as security, logistics, home delivery, and caregiving and for
the  megacity to be powered solely with
wind and solar power. The first phase of the 
design is  listed for completion
by 2025.

Planned regions

In January 2021, the  design unveiled plans for The Line, a
direct  megacity 170 kilometres( 110 mi)
long and 200 metres( 660 ft) wide within the Neom area. The design for The Line
was further modified in July 2022, scrapping the original idea for
multiple  structures on a direct
plan,  rather combining the  structures into one  nonstop structure with an entirely glass
glass  surface. The auto-free  megacity is planned to be large enough to
house 9 million  residers within walkable
communities, with all  introductory
services within a 5-  nanosecond walking
distance.

Neom Bay

The development work of the  design’s first phase, Neom Bay, was planned
to start in the first quarter of 2019 and be completed by 2020.(  requirements update) The developments were to
include constructing the  field at Sharma
which would operate regular  marketable
breakouts between Riyadh and Neom. The plan of Neom Bay’s developments also
involves  erecting the first domestic
area in Neom as part of phase 1.

Neom Bay Airport

In June 2019, it was announced that  Neom Bay Airport would begin accepting
commercial flights upon completion of the first phase of the airport  with a 12,326 ft (3,757 m) runway. Update]
The airport believed to be in Neom Bay has been registered by the International
Air Transport Association (IATA) under the code NUM.

Oxagon

Oxagon (originally called Neom Industrial City)
is an octagonal floating industrial complex. It is about 25 kilometers (16 mi)
north of the city of Duba and covers about 200 to 250 square kilometers (77 to
97 sq mi) of land, of which about 40 square kilometers (15 sq mi) make up the
city.  The project focuses on modern
manufacturing, industrial research and development, which focuses on  the expansion of the port of Duba.[30]
Mohammed bin Salman expects Oxagon to become “the th new hub for global
trade flows”; and serves sea routes across the Red Sea. Plans for the
complex include a desalination plant, a hydrogen power plant and an
oceanographic research facility. It will also house the multinational
cognitive  company Tonomus (originally
NEOM Tech & Digital Company), which is NEOM’s first spin-off subsidiary.  On December 16, 2022, the Saudi Arabian
Ministry of Industry and Natural Resources, the Saudi  Industrial Cities and Technological Zones
Authority and Neom signed a Memorandum of Understanding to Facilitate
Cooperation and Legislation in Support of the Neom
®
Factory of the Future Program. As of January 2023, Neom has not provided any
information on how the complex will stay afloat.

Trojena

On  March 3, 2022, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed
bin Salman launched the Trojena project, which will be the first major open-air
ski resort in the Arabian Peninsula. It will be constructed approximately 50
kilometers (31 miles) off the coast of the Gulf of Aqaba  in the Sarwat Mountains at an elevation of
between 1,500 and 2,600 meters (4,900 and 8,500 feet). Despite being in a
desert, the  climate here is much colder
than the rest of Neom.

Sindalah

 A marina with 86 berths, three luxury hotels
and a capacity of up to 2,400 guests per day are planned.

International
relations

In March
2020, Neom signed a partnership agreement with the Mercedes-EQ Formula E team
as the main partner. Two years later, Neom became the main sponsor of the
electric motorsport division of McLaren Racing under the name NEOM McLaren
Electric Racing from 2022 to the 23rd season, with the Formula E and Extreme E
divisions have been renamed from McLaren to NEOM McLaren Formula E Team and
NEOM McLaren Extreme E Team, respectively. 
In July 2020, the American company Air Products & Chemicals Inc has
announced plans to build the world’s largest green hydrogen facility in Saudi
Arabia. Air Products will jointly own the $5 billion project with  ACWA Power and Neom of Saudi Arabia.  In March 2021, Neom signed a four-year global
sponsorship deal with the Asian Football Confederation. ​​ In 2022, Neom hosted
Extreme E’s 2022 Desert X-Prix and held the naming rights to series #039;
Island of the  X-Prix in Sardinia.  In May 2022, Indian conglomerate Larsen &
Toubro was awarded a contract to build a 2,930 MW solar  plant, a 1,370 MW wind  farm, a 400 MW battery energy storage system,
and approximately 190 km of power transmission grid. In October 2022, Trojena
was announced as the future venue for the 2029 Asian Winter Games.

Controversies

Evictions
and executions

An
estimated  20,000 people will be
relocated to accommodate the proposed city. The Howeitat tribe, originally from
the area, say  they do not oppose the
city itself, but rather the eviction and the violence that followed. In the
videos, Abdul Rahim al-Huwaiti said he would defy deportation orders, although
he expected the Saudi authorities to plant weapons in his home to charge him.He
was later  killed by Saudi security
forces who claimed   opened fire on
them.London-based human rights activist and 
Howeitat tribesman Alya Alhwaiti denies this version of events and says
she does not own a gun.  His funeral took
place near the village of al-Khoraibah and was attended by a large number of
people, despite the presence of the Saudi security forces.  Eight 
of Abdul Rahim al-Huwaiti’s cousins ​​were arrested for protesting  the deportation order, but Alya Alhwaiti
said  she and other human rights
activists hoped to challenge the arrests. In June 2020, Mohammed bin Salman
signed a $1.7 million deal with US PR and lobbying firm Ruder Finn to counter  criticism and controversy surrounding the
Neom City project. In November 2020, British lawyers representing the Howeitat
tribe called on Dominic Raab to boycott the G20 summit in Saudi Arabia, arguing
that Britain had a moral imperative to take a stand to support the defend the
tribe and confront Saudi Arabia with rights issues. In October 2022, the
Specialized Criminal Court of Saudi Arabia sentenced three members of the
Howeitat tribe to death for resisting eviction. The three men were arrested in
2020 for protesting their tribe’s eviction over the project.

2029 Asian
Winter Games

In October
2022, Neom was announced to host  the
2029 Asian Winter Games,  which drew
criticism for its negative environmental impact. Amid growing concerns about
global warming, the project addressed a range of issues  from 
expected high temperatures in 
desert areas, energy impacts and 
local water diversion to building artificial skis from scratch. Raphaël
Le Magoariec,  political scientist and
specialist in the geopolitics  of sport
in the Gulf States, stated that Riyadh “above all wants to promote its
city of the future”. Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), while Olympic downhill
silver medalist Johan Clarey said: “It’s terrible for our sport.”

Abusive
work culture

In 2022,
former employees sued the NEOM project’s CEO, Nadhmi Al-Nasr, for promoting a
management culture that “humiliates expats, makes unrealistic demands and
overlooks discrimination in the workplace”. Former CEO Andrew Wirth
accused Nasr’s management of “systematically disparaging, disparaging and
inappropriately  demeaning
outbursts.” Nasr, who was appointed head of NEOM by Prince Mohammed
in  has been accused  of criticizing and scaring his staff during
his tenure, which has been confirmed by current and former staff. Two of Saudi
Vision 2030’s giga-projects merged in 2022, while the other three projects lost
foreign CEOs and transferred senior management. 
The Saudi government declined to comment, while Neom declined to release
Nasr  for responses or interview
requests.However, Neom issued a written statement in defense of Nasr and the
mega-project’s management culture, stating that Neom “represents a scale
and an ambition the world has never seen before”; and that it continues to
retain and attract more talent because “the people are passionate about
what they do and deeply committed to living 
and realizing Neom’s vision.”At the company meeting, Nasr said
publicly, “I run everyone like a slave, when they die I celebrate. That’s
how I make my plans.”  He also threatened
to replace workers stranded in other countries during the 2020 Covid-19
lockdown, including ‘ former director of branding and  marketing. In late 2018, Neom’s progress
suffered with the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi.  Neom advisers, including Daniel L. Doctoroff
and architect Norman Foster,  have
distanced themselves from the project and the “toxic” Saudi crown
prince.

Surveillance

The Line, a
smart city in Neoma to be designed using artificial intelligence, announced
plans to use data as  currency to manage
and deliver services such as energy, waste, water, healthcare, transportation
and security.Data is also said to have been collected from residents’
smartphones, their homes, facial recognition cameras and many other sensors.
According to Joseph Bradley, CEO of Neom Tech & Digital Co.,  data collection would help developers
transmit the collected information to the city to better anticipate and tailor
each user’s needs. Saudi Arabia’s poor human rights record and the use of spy
technology[68] and surveillance to spy on its citizens[69] in violation of their
privacy and security have proven to be obstacles to this situation, according
to digital human rights experts.Technology social impact researcher  Vincent Mosco said that “the concerns
about surveillance  are valid,”
adding that “this is indeed a surveillance city.” Saudi Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology did not respond to digital rights
experts and researchers #039; Requests for Comments

Other
criticisms

In July
2020,  League of Legends’ sponsorship of
the European Championship met with significant opposition from the professional
League of Legends community, including league players and staff. Backlash has
focused on the Saudi government’s human rights abuses, particularly its record
on LGBT rights. As a result of the backlash, the sponsorship was canceled hours
after the announcement.  Mohammed bin
Salman’s vision for the city includes some technologies that don’t currently
exist, such as flying cars, robotic minions, robotic dinosaurs, and a giant
artificial moon.  Some of the artwork for
Project Neom was sourced from Singapore’s Gardens by the Bay, leading reviewers
to note that “using an actual map of Singapore to represent an upcoming
construction project in Saudi Arabia is an odd choice”.

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