China–Pakistan border ( Pak-China Friendship)

 

China–Pakistan border

The China–Pakistan border is 596 kilometres (370
mi) and runs west–east from the tripoint with Asian country to the
controversial tripoint with Republic of India within the section of the Siachen
ice mass.[1] It traverses the Karakorum Mountains, one in every of the world’s
tallest mountain ranges. Hunza District, Shigar District and Ghanche District
in Gilgit-Baltistan body Territory of Pakistan, border Taxkorgan Tajik
Autonomous County and Kargilik/Yecheng County[2] in Kashgar Prefecture,
Sinkiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Chinese and Pakistani troopers at Khunjerab Pass,
China-Pakistan border in 2007

 

Contents

1          History

2          Description

3          Disputed
standing

4          Border
crossings

5          Maps

6          See
also

7          Notes

8          References

History

The modern border dates from the amount of
British rule once kingdom controlled Republic of India, that then enclosed
what’s currently Pakistan. In 1899, British, via its envoy to China Sir Claude
MacDonald, planned what became called the MacDonald Line to the Chinese
government, but the Chinese ne’er tried and true the proposal and so this
border was ne’er formalised.[3]

Over the subsequent decades a range of maps were
problems by all sides within the dispute, showing wildly variable
boundaries.[3] Republic of India and Pakistan heritable the dispute upon
independence in 1947, any difficult by their dispute over possession of Jammu
and Cashmere. the problem came to the fore within the early Sixties, at a time
of intense tension within the region thanks to in progress failure to resolve
the Indo-Pakistani dispute over Cashmere, a far larger Chinese presence in
Sitsang, and also the Sino-Indian War of 1962 during which China had taken
management of the Indian-claimed Aksai Chin region. In 1961 China and Pakistan
in agreement in theory to demarcate their common border; negotiations commenced
the subsequent year, with the ultimate Sino-Pakistan Agreement being signed in
1963.[3] each side created concessions within the accord, with Pakistan giving
China the realm round the Shaksgam vale called the Trans-Karakoram Tract.[3]
Following the accord a series of maps and aerial surveys of the border space
were created and boundary pillars were put in.

Description

The 1963 Sino-Pakistani agreement delimited the
boundary as follows:[3]

“Article 2 … (1) Commencing from its
northwestern extremity at height five,630 metres (a peak, the reference
co-ordinates of that area unit or so great circle 74° 34′ E and Latitude 37°
03′ N), the mete runs typically eastward then southeastward strictly on the
most watershed between the tributaries of the Tashkurgan watercourse of the
Tarim watercourse system on the one hand and also the tributaries of the Hunza
watercourse of the Indus River system on the opposite hand, passing through the
Kilik Daban (Dawan), the Mintaka Daban (Pass), the Kharchanai Daban (named on
the Chinese map only), the Kutejilga Daban (named on the Chinese map only), and
also the Parpik Pass (named on the Pakistan map only), and reaches the
Khunjerab (Yutr) Daban (Pass).

(2) when passing through the Khunjerab (Yutr)
Daban (Pass), the mete runs typically southward on the above-named main
watershed up to a mountaintop south of the Daban (Pass), wherever it leaves the
most watershed to follow the crest of a spur lying typically during a
south-easterly direction, that is that the watershed between the Akjilga
watercourse (a unnamed corresponding watercourse on the Pakistan map) on the
one hand, and also the Taghdumbash (Oprang River) and also the Keliman Su
(Oprang Jilga) on the opposite hand. per the map of the Chinese facet, the
mete, when feat the southeastern extremity of this spur, runs on atiny low section
of the center line of the bed of the Keliman Su to succeed in its confluence
with the Kelechin watercourse. per the map of the Pakistan facet, the mete,
when feat the southeastern extremity of this spur, reaches the sharp bend of
the Shaksgam or mountain chain watercourse.

(3) From the same purpose, the mete runs up the
Kelechin watercourse (Shaksgam or Muztagh River) on the center line of its bed
to its confluence (reference co-ordinates or so great circle 76° 02′ E. and
Latitude 36° 26′ N.) with the Sorbulak Daria (Shimshal watercourse or Braldu
River).

(4) From the confluence of the same 2 rivers, the
mete, per the map of the Chinese facet, ascends the crest of a spur and runs on
it to hitch the chain main watershed at a mountain-top (reference co-ordinates
or so great circle 75° 54′ E. and Latitude 36° 15′ N.), that on this map is
shown as happiness to the Shorbulak Mountain. per the map of the Pakistan
facet, the mete from the confluence of the above-named 2 rivers ascends the
crest of a corresponding spur and runs on it; passing through Height vi,520
metres (21,300 feet) until it joins the chain main watershed at a peak
(reference co-ordinates or so great circle 75° 57′ E. and Latitude 36° 03′ N.).

(5) Thence, the mete, running typically southward
then eastward, strictly follows the chain main watershed that separates the
Tarim watercourse system from the Indus River system, passing through the East
mountain chain Pass (Muztagh Pass), the highest of the Chogri Peak (K2), the
highest of the Broad Peak, high|the highest} of the mountain peak Mountain
(8068) Indirakoli Pass (named on the Chinese map only) and also the top of the
Teram Kangri Peak, and reaches its southeastern extremity at the Karakorum
Range Pass.”

 

Chinese and Pakistani soldiers at Khunjerab Pass,
China-Pakistan border in 2007

Disputed standing

Khunjerab Pass, border crossing between China and
Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Pakistan maintains a territorial claim on the
Indian-administered region of Ladakh (formerly a region of the Jammu and
geographical region state), that shares a border with China (see also: Line of
Actual Control). The political map utilized by the Pakistani government
annotates Ladakh’s boundary with China as “frontier undefined”, whose
standing would be formalised by “the sovereign authorities involved once
the settlement of the Jammu and geographical region dispute.”[4][5]

Conversely, the China–Pakistan border isn’t
recognised by India, that claims the erstwhile state of Jammu and geographical
region in its totality, a claim that negates any Sino-Pakistani border and so
would provide India a typical border with Asian country. India refuses to
recognise the lawfulness of the 1963 Sino-Pakistan written agreement or the
relinquishing of the Trans-Karakorum Tract (Shaksgam Valley) to China, a grip
additional sophisticated by the actual fact that enormous sections of the
remainder of the China-India boundary are controversial.[6] In 1984 India began
moving troops to the yet unsettled Siachen ice mass in geographical region,
thereby sterilization the de facto 
China-Inda-Pakistan tripoint.[7][8] Article vi of the 1963 Sino-Pakistan
written agreement provides for a renegotiation of the China-Pakistan boundary
if the geographical region dispute is resolved. However, with Indian relations
still cool with China, and poor-to-hostile with Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
it’s unlikely the boundary dispute are resolved before long.

Border crossings

The Khunjerab Pass is that the solely modern-day
border crossing between China and Islamic Republic of Pakistan, accessed via
the Karakorum main road.[9] traditionally the Mintaka Pass and Kilik Pass have
additionally been used; but those crossings don’t have vehicle access and ar
closed.

Khunjerab Pass, border crossing between China and
Pakistan.

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